It is possible to automatically share custom fields between Students and Teachers.
For the creation of the custom fields follow this guide.
Navigate to Configuration → Custom Fields and check the item Allow sharing of student custom fields with faculty:
Activating this checkmark by going into edit custom fields will enable the checkmark Share this student field with faculty (they can see the values but not edit them):
NOTE: The check mark will only be visible if the Custom field is set to Table(s).: Student.
The field, correctly filled out in the Student Record will now be visible Web-side within the Enrolled Students tab of the course:
And also from the App in the Students in the Course section: